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How a paradigm is born

Received: 09-OCT-2010
Accepted: 16-OCT-2010

About Professor Bayés de Luna’s postulate attempting to break with a paradigm and in fact accomplishing this. Paradigm is a model or pattern in any scientific discipline or another epistemological context. The concept was originally specific to grammar; in 1900 the Merriam-Webster dictionary defined its use only in such context, or in rhetoric to refer to a parable or a fable. In linguistics, Ferdinand de Saussure has used the word paradigm to refer to a class of elements with similarities. The term refers in the field of psychology, to the meanings of ideas, thoughts, beliefs generally incorporated during our first stage of life that are accepted as truths or falsehoods without testing them again under a new analysis. The term paradigm originates in the Greek word parádeigma, which in turn splits into two terms, pará (next) and déigma (model), in general, etymologically means «model» or «example». In turn, it has the same root words as «demonstrate». Bayés de Luna with his singular intelligence did this; he tested a paradigm in the case of infarctions of different walls comparing the electrocardiogram (ECG) with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)1. Thus, Bayés states and proves that the posterior side of the heart does not exist2 (Figure 1), instead, this is the basal region of the inferior side, visible in the bullseye of NMR3 (Figure 2).

Figure 1. Demostration that the posterior side of the heart does not exist. Segment 4 corresponds to the basal region of the inferior wall. Segment 4 is called infero-basal and not posterior. The bottom wall is formed by the segments 15 (Apical inferior), 10 (Middle bottom) and 4 (inferior-basal).


Figure 2. Bulls eye of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).

The change of paradigm tends to be dramatic in sciences, since these seem to be stable and mature, as physics at the end of the 19th century. Back then, physics seemed to be a discipline finishing the last details of a very elaborate system. The sentence by Lord Kelvin in 1900 became famous, when he said, «There is nothing new to be discovered in physics now. All that remains is more and more precise measurement». Five years after this statement, Albert Einstein published his work on special relativity that fixed a simple set of rules overcoming Newton’s mechanics, which has been used to describe force and movement for over two hundred years. In this example, the new paradigm reduces the old one to a special case, since Newton’s mechanics is still an excellent approach in the context of slow velocities in comparison to light velocity. In The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn wrote that «successive transition from one paradigm to another via revolution is the usual developmental pattern of mature science». The idea of Kuhn was revolutionary on his time, and caused more changes than all academicians speaking about science. Thus, it was in itself a «paradigmatic change» in scientific history and sociology. Philosophers and scientific historians, including Kuhn himself, finally accepted a modified version of this model, that achieves a synthesis between its original version and the gradualist model that preceded it. The original model of Kuhn is currently considered very limited. The same occurs with one-century-old electrocardiography that still has aspects to be modified or clarified, such the genesis of the U wave, the electrophysiological basis of arrhythmias in Brugada syndrome, the proof of the existence of the septal fascicle, the necessary revitalization of vector­cardiography, the clarification of ischemic changes and its relationship to the culprit artery, that our Samuel Sclarowski should still unveil in his new book, showing his truth to the world, and so on.


Prof. Andrés Ricardo Pérez Riera MD
Chief of Electrovectocardiology. Cardiology Department
ABC Faculty. ABC Foundation. Santo André
São Paulo. Brazil.



  1. Bayés de Luna A: Nueva terminología de las paredes del corazón y nueva clasificación electrocardiográfica de los infartos con onda Q basada en la correlación con la resonancia magnética. Rev Esp Cardiol 2007; 60: 683-689.
  2. Alarcón-Duque JA, Lekuona-Goya I, Laraudogoitia-Zaldumbide E, Salcedo-Arruti A: Electrocardiografía e infarto "posterior": ¿está resuelto el enigma? Rev Esp Cardiol 2008; 61: 657.
  3. Bayés de Luna A, Wagner G, Birnbaum Y, et al: International Society for Holter and Noninvasive Electrocardiography. A new terminology for left ventricular walls and location of myocardial infarctions that present Q wave based on the standard of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: a statement for healthcare professionals from a committee appointed by The International Society for Holter and Noninvasive Electrocardiography. Circulation 2006; 114: 1755-1760.



Publicación: Diciembre 2010



Editorial Electrónica
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XXXI Congreso
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31 Mayo,
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