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Age and Distribution of Coronary Risk
Factors in Women

Dueñas, Alfredo; Debs, Giselle; De la Noval, Reynaldo;
Porto, Aida S; Gonzalez, Juan C.; Acosta, Magda

Dpt. of Preventive Cardiology. Institute of Cardiology. Habana. Cuba

Introduction: Ischaemic Heart Disease is very common in the Cuban women, the mortality ratio (1998) men/women is only 1.2 in the age group of 55 years and over. It is known that in women after menopause the prevalence of coronary risk factors increases and in consequence increases the risk of coronary events.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence and distribution of coronary risk factors in women.
-To establish the differences in coronary risk factors distribution in women by age.
Methods: During the year 1996 a survey was performed in a population sample of the Municipality of 10 de October in Havana City. Coronary risk factors were measure in 3011 persons, 25 to 64 years of age, 1770 were women. Blood pressure, height and weight, glycemia and blood lipids, and smoking habits were measure.
Results: Women less than 55 years =1314, and 55-64 years =456. Table 1

Conclusion: The main risk factors increases in women 55 years and over. Only decreases the smoking habits. So the risk of CHD probably increases in that group of women.


   Despite the obvious predominance of coronary heart disease in middle-age men, cardiovascular disease is currently the major cause of death among adult women in many countries, however, mortality is only one component of concern; coronary morbidity is also substantial. Among women known to have coronary heart disease (CHD), more than half are over 55 years old. Our situation in Cuba is not to far, a pilot study has been on the way since 1987 in the 10 de October municipality in Havana City, as part of the National Program for the reduction of death due to Ischemic Heart Disease. In 1996, a representative sample of the adult population (n=3011), was examined with the aim of determining the risks levels of variables such as: blood lipids, arterial hypertension, smoking, obesity and diabetes mellitus, with respect to age and sex.

   -To determine the prevalence and distribution of coronary risk factors in the population.
- To established if there are differences in the level of risk factors among women under 55 and 55 and over years of age.

   During 1996 a survey was conducted in a population random sample of the "10 de October" Municipality, Havana City.

   It gave us the baselne data for an interventional study. 3100 persons between 25-64 years of age were selected, and 3011 were examined, from these, 1770 were women. All of them were visited in their homes and interviewed. A questionnaire was filled. Arterial blood pressure was measure with a mercury sphygmomanometer, and determination of height (in cm.), weight (in Kg.), fasting glycemia, and blood lipids were performed. The data was processed using the EpiInfo 5 Statistical Pack. Results were considered statistically significant when the probability level was less than 0.05.

   Table 1.- The mean values of blood pressure systolic and diastolic were significantly higher in women 55 years and over, with a difference of +16% for the older group. Body mass index was also higher in the group 55 and over, glycemia and all lipids were also higher in this group. Only the prevalence of smokers was lower in the older group.

   Most of the women in the older group were postmenopausal, and nobody were on hormone replacement, it is known the protective effect of strogens mainly through the level of risk factors, we have not a clear explanation for the higher level of HDL col. .The increasing smoking habit in younger groups is a fact.

   The main coronary risk factors increases in women 55 years and over. Only decreases the smoking habit. So the risk of CHD probably it is increased in that group of women.



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2nd Virtual Congress of Cardiology

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