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Comparison of Lipid Profile Between
Children from two Populations from
Argentina (Rural and Urban)

Tamagno, Beatriz; Pituelli, Norma; Rosillo, Irene;
Caferra, Digna; Corbera, Mirtha; Turco, Miryan;
Lioi, Susana; Seta Francisco; Fraix, Teresa.

Faculty of Biochemistry, UNR, Argentina

SUMMARY
Introduction: We know that children that come from rural areas have lower cholesterol levels than the ones that come from urban regions in low cholesterol countries. Opposite to that, when the cholesterol level is high, it is higher in children from rural regions.
Objectives: Knowing that in our country the medium cholesterol values are over the advised, we decided to compare to lipid profile from two children populations according to their age and habitat, to find out if there are differences between them.
Material and methods: We worked with 77 children from a rural population and 113 children of the same age from the city.
They were classified in two categories: urban and rural, separated in two groups (5-9 years old and 10-14 years old).
We determined: cholesterol, HDL-chol., LDL-chol. and tryglicerids. The reference values were obtained in relation with the 50 percentile according to international recommendations.
Results: The obtained values refer to the number of individuals (expressed in %) with superior values than the ones established for the 50 percentile for cholesterol, LDL-chol. and tryglicerids, and inferior for the HDL-chol. Table 1

Discussion: The rural population shows superior lipid profile values than the 50 percentile, compared to the urban, which has inferior HDL-chol. values than the rural.
Conclusion: Because the ethnic is the same, there must be environmental factors that contribute to this predominance in the rural area.

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INTRODUCTION
   Arteriosclerosis is a silent process that starts in an underhand way during childhood and it evolves in a process until it reaches an adult age, when clinic manifestations start.

   There is enough proof that arteriosclerosis starts during childhood. The fat stria develop since the sixth month of age and can evolve until they form fibrous plaque during childhood and/or adolescence.

   It has been pointed out that alterations in lipoproteins constitute an important risk factor related with arteriosclerosis and, because of all the exposed, there is a great interest in dislipidemy detection during an early age.

   The Argentinean Republic, as most of the western world countries, suffers since decades from a bad epidemic of cardiovascular diseases, that have been the main cause of death during the last 30 years. The most important of all the cardiovascular are those related to arteriosclerosis, coronary and other vascular territories.

   According to the consulted biography, we know that children from rural areas have lower cholesterol levels than children from urban areas in countries with low cholesterol levels. Opposite to that, in countries with high cholesterol levels, it is higher in children from rural areas.

OBJECTIVES
   Keeping in mind that in our country the medium cholesterol values are over the advised (CARPAT), we decided to compare the lipid profile of two children populations of our country, according to age and habitat, to learn if there exist differences between both populations and discover potential markers of a predisposition to develop arteriosclerosis with the aim of implementing strategies of prevention in an early age.

MATERIAL AND METHODS
   As part of a prevention plan of arterial hypertension and cardiovascular disease in an early age, we were called together by institutions of Rosario and neighboring populations.

   To evaluate the evolution of the cardiovascular risk factors during childhood and adolescence, the study included a group of 77 children of a rural population (Juncal, a small rural population with approximately 1000 inhabitants, 100 km away from Rosario) and 113 children from the city of Rosario (second city of Argentina, a group of children from a football league). The group was classified into two categories: rural and urban, and both were separated into two age groups: from 5 to 9 years old and from 10 to 14 years old, from both sexes.

WORK PLAN
   As a previous task, informative talks were held where parents were invited, in order to explain the objective of the study that was intended to do and, in case of accepting, the parents had to give their written consent.

   Once the population was organized, with every child the following activities were realized:

1. Confection of clinic and family history (antecedents, way of life, nutrition). There was investigated the existence in parents and grandparents of heart attacks and/or isquemic cardiopathy when they were under 55 years old. The inclusion of grandparents was made keeping in mind that, because of the age of the parents, this might not have antecedents yet. There were also considered lipid disorders (hypercholesterolemia, hypertrygliceridemia, etc.) including them as cardiovascular antecedents.
2. Clinic and cardiovascular exam.
3. Biochemical exam, blood extraction in the place of residence of each population (with the cares and precaution that children attention require). They were excluded all the participants that had previously know diseases and those that presented febric episodes in the 15 days prior to the sample take. The blood extraction was made after 12 hours of abstinence.
4. Preparation of the samples and execution of the analysis the same day.

LAB METHODS
   Cholesterol and tryglicerids were made with enzymatic methods, using Wiener Lab's commercial kit.

   HDL-cholesterol was determined over the floating remanents obtained after the precipitation of the ULDL and LDL-cholesterol with dextran sulfate and magnesium chloride.

   LDL-cholesterol was calculated with the Friedewald formula.

RESULTS
   The obtained values refer to the number of individuals (expressed in percentages) with superior values to those established for the 50 percentile for cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and tryglicerids, and inferior for HDL-cholesterol. (Table 1) (Figure 1)

DISCUSSION
   From the detailed observation of the individual data of each population, we could notice that a lot of the children from the rural population presented values that, even when they were normal, they were over the 50 percentile.

   Table 1 shows the distribution of all the values found according to number of individuals (expressed in %) with superior values to the ones established for the 50 percentile for total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and tryglicerids, and inferior for HDL-cholesterol.

   The studied rural population shows lipid profile values superior to the 50 percentile, compared with the urban population. The studied urban population has HDL-cholesterol values inferior to those of the rural population.

   The essential arterial hypertension is one of the cardiovascular risks with a high index of mortality, and its evolution during its natural history is usually made in years.

   The objective of the prevention is to do it as early as possible, in relation with the age of the predisposed subject. Inside the development of this prevention strategy, a very important element is to determine as early as possible indexes or markers of predisposition to future dislipidemy in healthy subjects. Keeping this in mind, the investigation in the present moment has focused specially in children and adolescents to modify diet and sedentary habits, etc.

CONCLUSION
   The ethnic is the same, so there must exist environmental factors that give reason to this predominance of the rural area.

 

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2nd Virtual Congress of Cardiology

Dr. Florencio Garófalo
Steering Committee
President
Dr. Raúl Bretal
Scientific Committee
President
Dr. Armando Pacher
Technical Committee - CETIFAC
President
fgaro@fac.org.ar
fgaro@satlink.com
rbretal@fac.org.ar
rbretal@netverk.com.ar
apacher@fac.org.ar
apacher@satlink.com

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